Urine Reagent Strips (URS) are used for quick and simultaneous semi- quantitative and qualitative screening of multiple urine parameters in one easy testing format. The testing range can be any combination of the following parameters:
Ascorbic Acid, Bilirubin, Blood, Glucose, Ketones, Leucocytes, Nitrite, Specific Gravity, pH, Protein, and Urobilinogen. For use as a preliminary screening test for diabetes, liver disease, haemolytic diseases, urogenital and kidney disorders and metabolic abnormalities during routine examinations.
Collect urine in a clean container and test as soon as possible. Do not centrifuge. The use of urine preservatives is not recommended. If testing cannot be performed within one hour after voiding, refrigerate the specimen immediately at 2 – 4°C. Allow refrigerated urine specimen to return to room temperature (15 – 25°C) before testing.
- Use fresh urine specimen that is less than 4 hours old. Collect urine into a clean, dry container, free of detergents.
- Remove one strip from the container taking care not to touch the reagent Immediately replace the cap.
- Briefly (no longer than one second) immerse all reagent areas into the urine Wipe off excess urine by wiping the edge of the strip on the urine container or on absorbent paper.
- Hold strip in a horizontal position to prevent interaction from adjacent areas.
- Refer to the label on the container for specific reagent areas on the Compare the test areas with the colour scale on the label 60 seconds after immersion (60 – 120 seconds for leucocytes).
Proper reading times are critical for optimal results. coloration appearing only along the edges of the test pads or developing after more than two minutes after immersion has no diagnostic value.
Clinical Use, Test Principles, Expected Values, Limitations
Ascorbic Acid: Intended to measure the level of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in urine. The reaction with ascorbic acid is based on the decolouration of Tillman’s reagent. In the presence of ascorbic acid a colour change takes place from grey-blue to orange. When the ascorbic acid reaction is positive, the test must be repeated no sooner than 10 hours after the last vitamin C intake (fruit, vegetables, medication).
Detection range: 5 – 10 mg/dl or 0.6 – 1,1 mmol/l.
Bilirubin: Intended to measure the levels of bilirubin conjugates in urine. Measurement of bilirubin and its conjugates are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver and bile diseases. The test for bilirubin is based on the coupling of bilirubin with a diazonium salt under acidic conditions. Normally no bilirubin is detected in the urine even by the most sensitive methods. The slightest discoloration of the reagent area constitutes a positive (i.e. pathologic) result. Concentrations of 0.5 mg/dl and more lead to a colour of red-orange peach and indicate the early stage of a liver disease. The pH of the urine does not affect the test reaction. False negatives may be produced by metabolites of drugs that give a colour at low pH, by the presence of nitrites and/or ascorbic acid concentrations in excess of
1.4 mmol/l. Indoxyl sulphate may also interfere with the interpretation of a negative or positive bilirubin reading. The presence of urobilinogen can enhance the sensitivity of the test field whilst urine indicane may cause atypical coloration.
Detection range: 1 – 4 mg/dl or 17 – 70 μmol/l.
Blood: Intended to detect occult blood in urine. Occult blood indicates urological or kidney diseases. Microhaematuria does not affect the colour of urine and is only detectable microscopically or by chemical detection methods. The detection of blood is based on the pseudoperoxidative activity of haemoglobin and myoglobin, which catalyze the oxidation of an indicator by an organic hydroperoxide and a chromogen to produce a green colour. Intact erythrocytes are indicated by punctual colorations (spots) on the test pad, and haemoglobin and myoglobin by a uniform green coloration. Large concentrations of ascorbic acid may cause lower readings in urine containing occult blood. False positive results are usually caused by residues of peroxide (from cleansing agents), formaline or by the activities of microbial oxidase from urogenital tract infections. The significance of a positive result varies from patient to patient and should be evaluated in the overall clinical assessment of the patient.
Detection range: 5 – 250 Ery/μl.
Glucose: Intended to measure glucose (glucosuria) in urine. Glucose measurement is used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolism disorders including diabetes mellitus and hyperglycaemia. This test is based on the specific glucose oxidase (GOD) – peroxidise (POD) reaction with a chromogen. It is independent of pH and not affected by presence of ketone bodies. Test reactivity, however, decreases as the SG of the urine increases. Reactivity may also vary with temperature. Small amounts of glucose are filtered by healthy kidneys, therefore changes in the coloration of less than 50 mg/dl (2.8 mmol/l) are considered normal. Ascorbic acid in urines with low glucose concentrations (up to 250 mg/dl) may inhibit the colour reaction and lead to lower or false negative results. If the urine contains ascorbic acid, the test should be repeated one day after vitamin C intake has been stopped. Other inhibitory substances include high specific gravity, gentisic acid and pH values higher than 5. Detection range: 50 – 1,000 mg/dl (2.8 – 56 mmol/l).
Ketones: Intended to detect ketones in urine. Identification of ketones is used in the diagnosis and treatment of acidosis of ketosis and for monitoring patients with diabetes. Based on the principle of Legal’s test, this test reacts with acetoacetic acid and acetone in alkaline solution to form a violet coloured complex. Normal urine specimens usually yield negative results, however, detectable levels may be observed during physiological stress conditions such as fasting, pregnancy and frequent strenuous exercise. It does not react with ß-hydroxybutyric acid. Captopril, Mesna (sodium 2-mercapto-ethane sulfonate) and other substances containing sulfhydryl groups may produce false-positive results. Phenylketones in high concentrations will cause variable colours. Phthalein compounds and anthrachinone derivates interfere with the test by producing a red coloration which may mask the reaction of ketones.
Detection range: 25 – 300 mg/dl (2.5 – 30 mmol/l).
Leucocytes: Intended to detect leucocytes in urine. A positive leucocyte results indicates an inflammatory disease of the kidneys and the urinary tract and suggests the need for further investigation. The reaction is based on the release of leucocyte esterase from lysed neutrophils, which react with an ester, producing a pyrrole compound. The pyrrole reacts with a diazo salt yielding a violet colour. Urine from healthy subjects do not contain any leucocytes. Any positive result is to be considered as clinically relevant. The reaction is not affected by bacteria, trichomonads or erythrocytes present in the urine. Formaldehyde (stabilizer) may cause false-positive reactions. If the urine specimen has a pronounced intrinsic colour (for example due to the presence of bilirubin or nitrofurantoin), the reaction colour may be intensified due to an additive effect. False positive results may be caused by contamination with vaginal secretion. Urinary protein excretions >500 mg/dl and urinary glucose excretions >2 g/dl may diminish the intensity of the reaction colour, as can cephalexine, cephalothine, tetracycline and gentamicin if administered in high daily doses.
- state-of-the-art technology
- outstanding quality
- batch-to-batch consistency
- results in 60 sec
- 2 year shelf life
- up to 13 parameters
- highly competitive pricing
- branded and OEM label
- customisation possible
- short lead times
- CE mark
The tests can be performed using whole blood or serum.
What sample preparation is recommended?
Serum should be prepared in the same way as routinely performed for any serological assay. Freshly collected samples should be used. Serum samples stored at -20 °C may be used as well. Venipuncture whole blood samples may be used provided the blood has been collected with an anticoagulant such as EDTA, heparin or citrate. Alternatively for a finger prick sample, clean the patient’s finger with the alcohol swab making sure the alcohol is dry before pricking with the lancet provided.
How long will the shipment take?
Depending on the size and availability of the order, anywhere from 1-4 weeks. Please contact the manufacturer to confirm.
When does the product expire?
The product expires two years after the date of manufacture.[/info_list_item][info_list_item list_title=”Manufacturer’s Warranty: ” list_icon=”Defaults-thumbs-o-up”]Product replacements on faulty/non-performing product as per Life Assay’s quality control check procedures on retainer samples.[/info_list_item][/info_list]
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